What is the global stock market and how it works

Global Stock Market

As a new investor, you will discover that many of your stock trades will be placed in one of a handful of the stock market. What is the global stock market? What are the main stock markets in the world? These are great questions. Let's take a look until you understand what the stock market is and how it works.


  • What is the global stock market

  • What is the purpose of the global stock market?

  • What are the main global stock markets today

  • Stock market

  • Trading steps in the global stock market

  • The pros and cons of the global stock market

What is the global stock market?

First, what is the global stock market? Simply put, the stock market is an institution, organization, or association that hosts a market in which stocks, bonds, options, futures, and commodities are traded. Buyers and sellers meet to trade during certain hours on business days. The exchange imposes rules and regulations on the companies and brokers that participate with them. For example, if a company’s shares are traded on the stock market, it will be referred to as “listed.”

Unlisted securities are sold outside the stock exchange, which means "over-the-stock". Usually, companies that have shares traded outside the stock market are smaller and riskier because they do not meet the requirements for listing on the stock market. Several stocks of major giants, such as Berkshire Hathaway, are traded simultaneously on the market outside the stock exchange before moving to something called "Big Board", or the New York Stock Exchange. 

Securities or shares not listed in the stock market are traded or sold in the OTC pattern, which means trading outside the stock market. The shares of companies that trade in the OTC system are small and more dangerous because they do not meet the requirements for listing on the stock exchange, many of the shares of giant companies are traded in a system OTC as Berkshire Hathaway before moving to the 'BIG BOARD' or New York Stock Exchange.

What is the purpose of the stock market?

When an employer raises capital by issuing shares, the owners of these new shares will likely want to sell their stake one day. Maybe they have a child going to college and need to cover their education bill. They may leave, and their freedom is subject to some huge real estate taxes. They may even leave it to their grandchildren, who enjoy a mounting base gap, but the heirs want to liquidate to buy a home. Whoever guides their decision, they are unlikely to tie their money unless they know how things are one way or another, at some point in the future, they will be able to find a buyer to own them without any hassle and this is known as the "secondary market". 

Without the stock market, these owners will have to search among friends, family members, and community members, hoping to find someone who can sell their shares to. (Technically, you can do this. You do not have to sell your stock on the stock exchange. You can own your stock in a certificate form, certify it, sign it and can transfer ownership of it through your law firm, or at your dining room table if you slanted, when the stock market closed during World War I, many people did, creating a secondary shadow market.

The downside of this work is that it does not include any transparency. No one knows what the best price for a particular stock is at a given moment in time. You may sell your stock for $ 50 while the buyer gets more than $ 70.) By selling them on the stock market, while trading you will not know the person at the opposite end (the buyer). He could be a retired teacher. The buyer may be a multi-billion dollar insurance package. It could be a mutual fund or a hedge fund. 

It is the need for convenience and convenience that has led to the creation of the world's largest exchange. In the United States, where a group of stockbrokers met under a wooden tree in New York City. On May 17, 1792, twenty-four of these brokers all went out to 68 Wall Street to sign the now famous Buttonwood Agreement, which actually created the New York Stock Exchange and Stock Exchange. After almost three-quarters of a century, in 1863, its name was officially changed to the New York Stock Exchange. These days, most people refer to it as the New York Stock Exchange.

What are the major stock exchanges in the world?

At one time, the United States was thriving on regional stock exchanges that included major centers within the country. In San Francisco, for example, the Pacific Stock Exchange had an open screaming system where brokers deal with buy and sell orders to local investors who want to buy or liquidate their equity stakes. Most of them were closed, purchased, absorbed or merged after the emergence of electronic chips, which made electronic networks more effective in finding liquidity so that the investor in California could easily sell his shares to someone in Zurich.

According to Wikipedia, the world's 20 largest stock exchanges by the market value of listed securities are:

source: Wikipedia.com, List of Stock-Exchanges

What is the correlation between the trading exchange and the American market 

The financial market is positively linked to the US stock markets, and this comes from the Saudi riyal's association with the US dollar. In contrast, the Saudi Stock Exchange is believed to be very positively associated with neighboring stock exchanges, such as the Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange, the Dubai Stock Exchange, and the Bahrain Stock Exchange. Usually, price movements in the Saudi financial market lead to similar movements in these exchanges.

Step of trading the stock market

Let's start with this basic fact: which is the crux of the matter, trading in the stock market revolves around pumping money today with the expectation of recovering more money in the future - and includes forecasting, calculating time, adapting to risks, guessing inflation rates, and results in the annual compound growth rate, especially compared to the criteria considered a "good" investment.

This really is; Heart of the matter. You can now offer cash or assets now, hoping to get more money or assets for you tomorrow, next year, or next decade.

Most of the time, this is best accomplished through the acquisition of fixed assets. 

Fixed assets are investments that get rid of surplus funds internally within a specific type of activity. For example, if you buy a plate, it is not a fixed asset. A hundred years from now, you'll still only own the painting, which may or may not be worth more or less than the money you bought it with. (However, you may be able to convert it to a semi-fixed asset by opening a museum and shipping those interested to see it.) On the other hand, if you purchase an apartment building, then the building will not only be the fixed asset in this activity then all the money that results from the rental income And services during this century are fixed assets. Even if the building was destroyed after a decade, you still have a cash flow ten years into operation - which you could have used to support your lifestyle, given to charity, or reinvest in other opportunities.

Each type of fixed asset has its own pros and cons, unique quirks, legal traditions, tax rules, and other relevant details. In general, investments in fixed assets can be divided into a few main categories. Let's walk through the three most common types of investments: stocks, funds, bonds, and real estate. 

Investing in stocks

When people talk about investing in stocks, they usually mean investing in common stocks, which is another way to describe business ownership or business ownership rights. When you own shares in a company, you are entitled to a share of the profits or losses resulting from the operating activity of that company. On a holistic basis, historically stocks are the most rewarding asset class for investors seeking to build wealth over time without using a large amount of leverage. 

To simplify the risk, I would like to think of stock investment as having one of two attributes - privately owned and publicly traded.

Investing in privately-owned companies: These companies do not have a public market for their shares.

Starting at scratch it can be a high-risk offer and a high entrepreneurial intent. You have come up with an idea, you are creating a company, managing this business so that your expenses are less than your revenues, increasing it over time, and making sure that you do not get good compensation for your time, but about your capital as well, it will be fair by getting On a good return compared to the size of a simple investment, although entrepreneurship is not an easy thing, as having a good job allows you to put your food on your table daily, provides you with enough money to send your children to universities, covers your medical expenses, and allows you to retire comfortably Divorced. 

Investing in a public business: Private companies sometimes sell part of their ownership to external investors, in a process known as an initial public offering, or IPO. When this is done, anyone can buy the shares and become the owner.

The types of publicly traded shares you own may vary based on a number of factors. For example, if you are one of the people who love companies with stable and flowing cash flow to their owners, then you are likely to invest in preferred stocks, and maybe your approach to investing profits and investment value.

On the other hand, if you prefer a more active investment allocation methodology, you may be attracted to investing in bad corporate stocks, as any slight increase in the profitability of its shares may lead to an unexpectedly large jump in proportion to the share price of the stock.

Investing in commercial investment funds (ETFs) 

ETFs or ETFs give you a way to buy and sell an asset basket without having to purchase all the components individually. The ETF Provider owns the underlying assets, designs a fund to track their performance, and then sells shares in that fund to investors. Shareholders own a portion of the ETF but do not own the underlying assets in the fund. However, investors in mutual funds that track the stock index will get a dividend or reinvestment in the stocks that make up the index. (Related: Learn how to invest in index funds.)

Whereas ETFs are designed to track the value of the underlying asset - whether it is a commodity like gold or a basket of stocks such as S&P 500 - they trade at market rates and usually differ from that asset. The difference is sometimes great for several reasons. For example, expenditures, the long-term returns of ETFs will differ from those in their underlying assets.

Investing in fixed income securities (bonds) 

When you buy a fixed income guarantee, you really lend money to the bond issuer for fixed interest. There are countless ways you can do, for example buying CDs and money markets to invest in corporate bonds, municipal tax-free bonds, and US savings bonds.

As with stocks, many fixed-income securities are purchased through a brokerage account. You must choose your broker and choose between a discount or full-service form. When opening a new brokerage account, you may find a difference in the minimum investment, usually between $ 500 and $ 1,000; It is often lower for IRA or Education Accounts. Alternatively, you can work with a registered investment advisor or asset management company that operates on a credit basis. 

Investing in real estate

Real estate investment is as old as humanity itself. There are many ways to make money investing in real estate, but it usually comes either to developing something and selling it for profit or to owning something and allowing others to use it in exchange for rent or lease payments. For many investors, real estate has been a path to wealth because it is easier to use leverage. This may be a bad thing if the investment turns out to be bad, but if it is applied to the right investment at the right price and at the right conditions, it can allow someone without much money to accumulate resources quickly and control a much larger asset base than they can expect. 

What may be confusing to new investors is that real estate can also be traded like stocks. This is usually caused by a company setting up a real estate investment fund or REITs. For example, you can invest in real estate investment trusts in a hotel and collect your share of the revenue from guests staying in the hotels and resorts that make up the company's portfolio. There are many types of REITs; Residential complex REITs, REITs office building, REITs storage center, REITs that specialize residential complexes for seniors, and even parking REITs.

The pros and cons of the stock market

The stock market has a set of positive g-positives for both the listed companies inside it and for the individuals who seek to trade on the shares of these listed companies. 

Stock market positives

For listed companies, the process of listing on the stock market raises the status and level of the company. This is especially true in old markets, such as Amsterdam, London, and New York. As the listing process in the stock market helps urge investors to buy the shares of this company, which helps the company to expand by raising funds.

Trading in the stock market makes traders less exposed to the risk of default. This is due to the high levels of regulation and safety within the stock market, which is something that trading methods outside the stock market lack.

In addition, brokerage firms enabled traders to access stock markets via the Internet and gain the opportunity to benefit from any short-term movements in daily market trading.

Stock market negatives 

For a company, the listing can be time consuming and expensive. Once the company is listed, it will have to consider its responsibility towards the shareholders, who now have a stake in the company.

Trading in the stock market does not guarantee stability. The stock market is subject to wide fluctuations, which means that there can be significant fluctuations in the share price, as these products sometimes respond to political and economic events around the world.

The stock market can experience some accidents. Although rare, stock market accidents can drastically reduce the value of stocks and lead to years of economic depression.

Traders and investors can manage their exposure to stock market fluctuations by implementing a risk management strategy.

The next step is to open an account

Once you've settled on the asset class you want to own, your next step is to determine how you own it. To better understand this point, open a virtual investment account (trading in the stock market with a demo trading account) and build a portfolio of stocks, indices, and ETFs.


Use the "Expert Advisor Generator" alternative and build automation with just a few clicks without writing codes.


Stock trading - how to start, how to choose, and how to succeed? 

Not everyone who buys and sells shares is a stock trader, at least in the accurate investment language. Most of the investors are in one of the two camps. Depending on their frequency and the strategy that drives their business, they are either "stock traders" (like Gordon Gecko in "Wall Street") or "stock investors" (like billionaire Warren Buffett). It is necessary to learn the principles of stock trading before entering into any type of investment or investment strategy. This beginner's trading guide gives you a starting point and will guide you through several operations.

The term stock trader usually refers to a person who frequently buys and sells stocks to take advantage of daily price fluctuations. These short-term traders are betting that they can get a few dollars in the next minute or the next hour or days or even a few months, instead of buying shares in a major company to transfer to their grandchildren one day.

Stock trading can be improved based on certain criteria: 

Trading active stocks, which is something that investors perform 10 or more deals per month. Usually, they use a strategy that relies heavily on market timing, in an attempt to take advantage of short-term events (at the company level or based on market fluctuations) to achieve profits in the coming weeks or months.

Stock Traded Daily is a strategy used by investors who play stocks at a meteoric speed - as these investors buy, sell, and close positions on the same share on a single trading day, and they do not care much about the internal business of the core companies. (The word "center" refers to the number of shares or the amount of money invested within the market that the trader owns.) The goal of daily trading is to earn a few dollars in the next few minutes, hours, or days by taking advantage of price fluctuations that change daily.

Stock trading - how to get started

If you are trying to cultivate your hand in trading stocks for the first time, you should know that what best serves the interest of most investors in the best way is by keeping things simple and investing in a diverse mix of index funds that do not require significant cost - and the main criterion is to achieve good and superior performance The long-term. 

Notably, the logistics of learning how to start stock trading are listed below in three steps:

1. Open an account with a financial brokerage firm

Stock trading requires financing a trading account with a financial brokerage firm, which is a specific type of account designed to hold investments. If you do not already have an account, you can open an account with a financial brokerage firm in a few minutes. If you are going to trade stocks frequently, you will need to pay close attention to the costs associated with each transaction - called a stock trading committee for the broker.

There are two types of accounts available:


  • Individual stock trading account

  • Administration and / or social account


2. Set a budget for stock trading

We have some advice: Even if you find yourself talent in the stock trading process, allocating more than 10% of your portfolio to individual stocks can expose your investment to very large volatility. 

Other basic rules for risk management: invest only in an amount of money that you can afford to lose, and do not use the funds earmarked for your own short-term expenses in investing in a trading account.

Consider margin trading (leverage): borrowing for a greater opportunity 

The margin account amplifies the investing power of the investor by allowing him to borrow money to trade shares. This is through the use of leverage, where the investor can make more gains. Otherwise, the merchant’s investment will be limited only to the value of the money deposited in his account. On the other hand, margin trading exposes some traders to losses.

Leverage is actually a very effective use of working capital and is particularly appreciated by professional traders because it allows them to multiply their trades in the trading process (i.e. more contracts, stocks, etc.) with a lower investment size. Leverage does not change the potential profit or loss that trading can cause. Instead, it reduces the amount of invested capital that is supposed to be used, thereby freeing additional capital that supports entering into trades and other deals. For example, a trader who wants to buy a thousand shares and assume that the price per share is $ 20, it will need $ 20,000 to buy these shares, but with the use of the leverage system, it may only need $ 5,000 of the invested capital, leaving $ 15,000 The rest is available for additional trading. 

In addition to being an efficient use of invested capital, leverage can also greatly reduce the risks of some types of deals. For example, a Saudi trader who wants to invest in ten thousand individual shares at $ 10 per share would require that he save $ 100,000 in cash, and the full amount of $ 100,000 would be at risk. Moreover, if a trader wants to invest in the same stock with the same potential profit or loss in a leverage system (the price of the change will be $ 100 per 0.01 change in price) using derivative markets (markets with high leverage), he will only need a portion of 100,000 Dollars in cash (maybe $ 5,000), meaning that the risk will only touch the amount of $ 5,000 that he used to execute this transaction.

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